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About The Surgery

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Nephrectomy Surgery

Kidney function is essential to life because the organ filters wastes and fluid from the circulation system. A nephrectomy is the careful removal of a kidney or a segment of a kidney. It is most generally performed on patients with kidney growths or those whose kidney has been severely damaged by infection, kidney stones, or cysts. Nephrectomy is also used to remove a healthy kidney that is needed by the sick person.

What are the Types of Nephrectomy?

A nephrectomy might be:

  • Radical This procedure includes complete removal of the kidney, the adrenal gland, nearby lymph nodes and some encompassing tissue. This procedure is performed in instances of neoplastic disease, for example, renal cell carcinoma (a kidney tumour).
  • Simple The removal of the damaged kidney is done. It is done in case of non-neoplastic kidney disease.
  • Partial Otherwise known as nephron saving surgery, this method removes a segment of the affected kidney and is typically performed in people where a kidney tumour is 4 cm or smaller. This sort of medical procedure is considered for people who either have a single kidney or have cysts in both kidneys.

In What Conditions Nephrectomy is Applicable?

The most common reason a urologic surgeon performs a nephrectomy is to remove a tumour from the kidney. These tumours are usually cancerous, but they can be noncancerous or benign as well. Sometimes a nephrectomy is needed because of chronic kidney disease or kidney failure. Nephrectomy is applicable in following cases:

  • The kidney has cancerous tumours. This condition requires a radical nephrectomy.
  • The kidney has been damaged, which causes side effects or issues, (for example, infection). Infection, kidney stones or cysts can cause damage. Damage can also occur if urine develops weight because of obstruction at some place in the urinary tract.
  • The patient has severe hypertension, which is caused by renal conduit stenosis. In this condition, an infected passage results in damage to one kidney. Nephrectomy does not fix hypertension in this disease, yet it can help in controlling the symptoms to a great extent.
  • Fatal injury, for example, a car crash, has harmed the kidney beyond repair.
  • The patient's kidneys are failed, and the matching donor is ready to provide a kidney for transplant.
  • The transplanted kidney has been rejected by the beneficiary's body and isn't working. The medical procedure to remove this kidney is called an allograft nephrectomy.

How is the Procedure Performed?

  • Laparoscopic Nephrectomy A few people who require a nephrectomy are suitable for a laparoscopic medical procedure (likewise called minimally invasive surgery) to remove the kidney. The laparoscopic medical procedure includes the use of a laparoscope (stick-like camera) that is inserted through small incisions or "ports" in the stomach divider. This procedure is used to see the stomach cavity and remove the kidney through a little cut. The method is performed under general anaesthesia. The patient will require a bladder catheter that is put amid the procedure and is removed a few hours after the medical procedure.
    Laparoscopy fulfils the purpose of kidney removal in the same way as conventional procedures and can be used for both radical and partial surgery. It is one of the favoured technique for kidney transplant donor's nephrectomy.
  • Open Nephrectomy Open nephrectomy is not often required; however, when it is performed, the patient is put under anaesthesia. The specialist makes a (cut) in the belly or at the side of the abdomen (flank zone). A rib may be removed to proceed with the surgery. The ureter (the conduit that passes urine from the kidney to the bladder) and the veins are removed from the kidney, and the kidney is removed. The cut is then closed with the dissolvable sutures.
  • Robotic Nephrectomy The da Vinci robot enables some mind-boggling surgical interventions to be executed as minimally invasive methods. Through small 1-2 cm incisions, a surgeon may work with utmost precision and control while limiting the pain that frequently happens due to substantial cuts made in the open medical procedure. The specialist utilises hand controls to direct the automated arms which hold specially designed surgical instruments.

What Postoperative Complications May Happen?

Like any other surgery, nephrectomy carries a potential risk of complications, such as:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Injury to nearby organs
  • Rarely, other serious problems
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Chronic kidney disease

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Hospitals

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