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Schwannomas Treatment

A schwannoma (sh-won-oma) is a tumour of the tissue that envelops nerves, called the nerve sheath. These tumours develop from a kind of cell called a Schwann cell, which gives them their name. Schwannomas are frequently not dangerous (benign). The most widely recognised sort of schwannoma is a vestibular schwannoma.

What Causes Schwannomas?

Schwannomas ordinarily develop in generally sound individuals for obscure reasons. Often, a schwannoma is caused by a hereditary issue, for example, neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), schwannomatosis, or Carney complex. Individuals with these hereditary issues usually have more than one schwannoma.

What Symptoms Should be Looked Out for?

Schwannomas may develop slowly and may remain undetected for years without causing symptoms. Therefore, a few people may never encounter any symptoms. Others may encounter radiating pain, muscle weakness, shivering, a "pins and needles" sensation, or numbness; however, indications fluctuate depending upon the peripheral nerve which is affected. The following are the symptoms that may happen due to a schwannoma in a particular nerve or territory of the body:

  • Vestibular nerve (the nerve connecting the ear and cerebrum) - hearing loss, discombobulation, balance issues, as well as ringing or humming in the ear.
  • Facial nerve - facial paralysis, swallowing problems, trouble in moving the eye, facial pain, as well as loss of sense of taste.
  • Spinal nerve root - Symptoms similar to a herniated circle, for example, radiating arm or leg pain, numbness, tingling, and muscle weakness.
  • Arm or leg nerve - Localised pain, "sticks and needles" sensation, carpal tunnel syndrome (if on a wrist nerve), and tarsal tunnel syndrome (if on a lower leg nerve).

How is the Diagnosis Made for Schwannomas?

A specialist will start with an exhaustive history of the patient and physical exam. If a specialist believes that a spinal tumour might be available, the accompanying tests might be requested:

  • X-ray An x-ray can indicate which territory has been influenced.
  • Computerised tomography (CT) A CT is a noninvasive methodology that utilises x-rays to create a three-dimensional picture of the affected zone. It provides more detail than an x-ray, can recognise the growths in more noteworthy detail, and demonstrate the nerves, spinal cord, and any possible damage to them.
  • Magnetic reverberation imaging (MRI) An MRI uses magnetic fields and radio-recurrence waves to make a picture of the affected zone, and can uncover fine subtle elements including tumours, nerves, and other growths. Often, a contrast agent is infused into a vein in the hand or arm amid the test, which highlights specific tissues and structures to make details considerably clearer.

How are Schwannomas Treated?

The optimal treatment for the symptomatic schwannomas is maximal surgical removal and focused radiation treatment (radiosurgery). Luckily, for patients requiring schwannoma medical procedure, most vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas) can be removed through a retromastoid keyhole craniotomy while most trigeminal schwannomas can be removed through either a retromastoid approach or an endonasal endoscopic approach.

  • Treatment for vestibular (acoustic) schwannomas is by surgical removal through a keyhole retrosigmoid craniotomy or other skull base approach or by radiosurgery. For tumours under 2.5 cm, either medical procedure or radiosurgery are sensible treatment choices. For tumours more than 2.5 cm, surgical removal is prescribed. Treatment for trigeminal schwannomas is normally done by surgical removal through a retrosigmoid craniotomy or other skull base approach, depending upon the location.
  • In some patients with a vestibular or trigeminal schwannoma in whom only a sub-total tumour removal is possible, radiosurgery or stereotactic radiotherapy may be effectively used to control further tumour growth. Chemotherapy is generally not used for treating schwannomas.
  • Prognosis

    The prognosis of Schwannoma (benign tumour) is excellent if a tumour can be removed without damaging the underlying nerve. Most Schwannomas are benign and do not recur when completely excised.

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Hospitals

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