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Arteriovenous Malformations

An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a bunch of abnormal veins which connects the arteries and veins in the brain. The arteries are in charge of taking oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the cerebrum. Veins carry back the oxygen-exhausted blood back to the lungs and heart. A brain AVM upsets this necessary procedure.

An arteriovenous deformity can grow anywhere in your body, yet frequently happens in the cerebrum or spine.

What are the Causes?

The reason isn't known. AVMs are believed to be an anomalous bunch of veins in the cerebrum which might be present since birth. Most AVMs are not acquired. There is only one condition in which acquiring this condition is possible: Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (H.H.T). An AVM isn't counted as a disease as it does not spread to the entire body. Dural AVMs in grown-ups are an acquired issue that can happen following any accident or damage on head.

What are the Symptoms?.

Symptoms of brain EVM are:

  • Vision loss
  • Bleeding in the skull
  • Seizures may happen
  • A persistent headache
  • Confusion or dilemma
  • Difficulty in speaking
  • A subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Confusion or inability to understand others
  • Severe unsteadiness or inability to walk while maintaining the balance
  • Weakness, numbness, paralysis or tingling in limbs or other parts of the body

Symptoms of Body EVM are:

  • Abdominal pain, back pain and chest pain
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Frequent seizures
  • Muscle weakness, inability to move a limb and lack of coordination
  • Children may suffer from hydrocephalus (an increase in fluid in the brain that causes abnormally large head)

How the Diagnosis is Made?

  • Computerised tomography (CT) scan This test provides your doctor with clear images of your aorta. The size and shape of an aneurysm can be detected through this method. The doctor injects you with a dye and makes you lie inside a doughnut-shaped machine. The scanning generates the cross-sectional pictures of your body.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) An MRI is an imaging test that may be used to diagnose any unusual tissue or growth. It helps in determining the size and location. The doctor makes you lie on a table. You are slid into a tunnel-like machine, where magnetic field radio wave pulses scan your body and create the images of your body. Whether to inject a dye or not is the doctor’s decision.
  • MRA MR angiography (MRA) utilises an intense magnetic field, radio waves and a PC to assess veins and help recognise variations from the norm or analyse atherosclerotic (plaque) issues. This exam does not utilise ionising radiation and may require an infusion of a complexity contrast material called gadolinium, which doesn't cause any allergic reaction.

What are the Treatments?

  • Medical or Therapeutic Treatment If there are no side effects or if an AVM is in a region of the cerebrum that can't be reached or treated nonsurgically, traditionalist therapeutic methods may be used. A person with an AVM ought to dodge any exercises that may exorbitantly plummet the pulse, for example, challenging work or stressful activities, and stay away from blood thinners like warfarin. A person with an AVM ought to have consistent checkups with a neurologist or neurosurgeon.
  • Surgery If an AVM has drained or potentially is in a zone that can be easily accessed, a surgical procedure might be suggested. The patient is given anaesthesia; a part of the skull is carved out with a surgical knife, and the AVM is removed. At the point when the AVM is entirely out, the likelihood of further bleeding is reduced.
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery If an AVM that is not too substantial, but instead is in a territory that is hard to reach by standard medical procedure, it might be treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. In this technique, a cerebral angiogram is done to limit the AVM. High-energy focused beams are focused on the cerebrum AVM to deliver heat to the damaged veins that will cause a scar and enable the AVM to "clump off."
  • Interventional neuroradiology/endovascular neurosurgery It is possible to treat a part of the AVM by putting a catheter (little tube) inside the veins that supply the AVM and closing off the irregular veins with surgical materials. These materials incorporate liquid tissue adhesives, micro coils, particles and different materials, which are used to stop blood streaming to the AVM.

Complications and Risks of Surgery

  • General risks of medical procedure would incorporate infection and the requirement for a blood transfusion. The blood may or may not be available depending on the blood group.
  • Treatment is beneficial only if the AVM is situated in a zone that is within the specialist’s reach.
  • The patient may be required to stay for a long time.

Prognosis

The odds of beating AVM using careful treatment is high. AVM doesn't occur again when removed completely.

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Hospitals

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Doctors

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