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Medullary carcinoma of breast Treatment

Medullary carcinoma may allude to one of a few distinct tumours of epithelial origin. As the expression "medulla" is a non-specific anatomic descriptor for the mid-layer of organ tissues, a medullary tumour typically emerges from the "mid-layer tissues" of the vital organs. It is a less-aggressive type of ductal carcinoma, and is named by its appearance, which resembles the tissues of the "Medulla oblongata" of the cerebral stem. Medullary carcinoma mostly affects thyroid gland, milk-ducts of breast, and several other organs.

What are the Types of Medullary Carcinoma?

Medullary carcinoma most commonly affects:

  • Breast
  • Thyroid
  • Medullary carcinoma of the breast
  • Pancreas
  • Ampulla of Vater
  • Gall bladder
  • Stomach
  • Large intestine
  • Kidney Renal medullary carcinoma

What Causes Medullary Carcinoma of Breast?

Generally, medullary carcinoma of breast is caused due to hormonal impact. It may also happen when genes in the breast cells mutate. In this case, the cells start proliferating more than what their genetic code allows. Women are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with it. Mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes is one of the most likely causes for carcinoma of breast.

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that create tumor silencer proteins. These proteins help repair damaged DNA and assume a part in guaranteeing the stability of every cell's genetic material. When both of these genes are modified to such an extent that the silencer protein isn't made or does not work correctly, damage to DNA is rendered irreparable.

What are the Diagnostic Procedures for Medullary Carcinoma of Breast?

Doctors usually look for a clear, well-defined boundary between tumour tissue and healthy breast tissue, huge cancer cells with high-grade appearance, immune system cells, hormone-receptor-negative, and HER2-negative. The true characteristic of medullary carcinoma is that the cancer cells are clearly seen during the diagnosis.

A few tests are conducted to check the presence of cancer cells in the affected breast. Some of them are:

  • Imaging Tests The breast x-ray called, a mammogram can detect the cancer cells. It creates the image to detect abnormalities in the breast. Other tests are breast MRI in which the doctor injects the dye into the breast and checks how far cancer has spread. An ultrasound test also helps in identifying the difference between the cancerous mass and normal tissue.
  • Biopsy For the laboratory testing, the tissues are taken from the breast. This test is beneficial because it shows the size of the tumor, how far it has spread, and so on.
  • Breast Exam The doctor examines the breasts, and asks the patient to move the hands upwards or in the opposite direction. Physical examination is done to check any probability of lumps.

How is Medullary Carcinoma of Breast Treated?

The specialists may assess various treatments for medullary carcinoma. They will consider the tumour's size, the cell type, and if a tumour has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

  • Surgery This is the mainstream breast cancer treatment which only targets the breast and doesn't affect the whole body. In the breast surgery, the lumps, cancer cells and the part of the breast having cancer are removed from the body.
  • Radiation Therapy With the use of radiation, the doctor destroys the cancer cells from the patient’s body. This therapy is used after chemotherapy so that it can kill the remaining cells.
  • Chemotherapy It shrinks the tumour, prevents it from spreading to the other parts of the body, and also reduces the painful symptoms. Chemotherapy is given according to the cancer stage. The cytotoxic drug is used to treat the patient.
  • Hormone Blocking Therapy The patients who can’t undergo radiotherapy, chemotherapy is the best option for them. This treatment prevents the cancer cells, and it also prevents recurrence of cancer. Before beginning this therapy, the hormone receptors on cells will be checked. The ability of cancer cells to use body’s hormones to grow will be affected.

Prognosis

Medullary carcinoma of the breast tends to react preferably to breast cancer treatment than other ductal carcinomas. With early identification and treatment, recovery and survival rates are favourable.

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Hospitals

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Indraprastha Apollo

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Doctors

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Dr. Manjinder SandhuPaediatric Cardiology

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Dr. Anjana SatyajitDentistry

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Dr. Ashu Kumar JainSr. Consultant

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Dr. Ashutosh ShuklaSr. Consultant

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Dr. Dheeraj KapoorSr. Consultant

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Dr. I P S OberoiOrthopaedics

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Dr. Sameer KaushalSr. Consultant

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Dr. Sumit SinghDirector

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Dr. Sumeet AgarwalHead

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Dr. Subhash Jangid Senior Consultant

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Dr. Rakesh K. DuaDirector & Head - Neurosurgery(Spine & Brain)

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Dr. Nikhil AgnihotriSenior Consultant

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Dr. Anil Kumar VarshneyDirector & HOD - Urology

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Dr.(Col.) Ranga Rao RangarajuDirector - Medical Oncology

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Dr. Rudra Prasad AcharyaMS(General surgery), Fellow(Surgical Oncology ft Colorectal Surgery), Sr. Consultant ft Head

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