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About The Cancer

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Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer starts in the tissues of the pancreas — an organ in the mid-region that lies on a flat plane behind the lower portion of the stomach. The pancreas discharges compounds that guide digestion, and hormones that help in regulating the glucose levels.

Pancreatic cancer spreads quickly to close-by organs. It is seldom diagnosed in its initial stage. For individuals with pancreatic cysts or a family history of pancreatic cancer, some screening approaches may help recognise it early.

What Causes Pancreatic Cancer?

Researchers don't know precisely what causes most pancreatic malignancies, yet they have discovered a few risk factors that can make a person prone to get this ailment. Some of these risk factors influence the DNA of cells in the pancreas, which can result in abnormal cell development and may cause tumours.

DNA is a chemical in our cells that carry our genes. A few factors control when our cells develop, divide into new cells, and die. The genes which may cause cancer are:

  • Genes that assist cells in developing, separation, and remaining alive are called oncogenes.
  • Genes that assist in monitoring cell division, repair errors in DNA, or cause cells to die are called tumour silencer genes.
  • Diseases can be caused by DNA mutations (gene transformations) that turn on oncogenes or disable tumour silencer qualities.

    What are the Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer?

    • Back or Stomach Pain A tumour may cause pain in the abdomen or mid-back. Depending on its location, the tumour may be pushing against nerves or organs near the pancreas or blocking the digestive tract.
    • Feeling Bloated Pancreatic cancer may cause the accumulation of extra fluid in the abdomen. This causes the belly to swell and stretch out.
    • Trouble in Digestion Loss of appetite, indigestion and nausea are normal in people with pancreatic cancer. These symptoms may occur when a tumour blocks or slows the regular digestive processes.
    • Unexplained Weight Loss Incomplete digestion can cause weight loss due to cancer. Cancer-induced weight loss is a problem that affects the way the body uses calories and protein. This condition may cause the body to burn more calories than usual, break down muscle and decrease appetite.
    • Pale Skin and Eyes Jaundice is the yellowing of the skin and eyes. It is caused by the buildup of bilirubin, a component of bile. This buildup can happen if a tumour blocks the bile flowing from the gallbladder into the small intestine. People with jaundice may also have itchy skin, dark urine and light or clay-coloured stools.
    • Stools are Changing Many pancreatic cancer patients have diarrhoea, constipation or both. Diarrhoea consisting of loose, watery, oily or foul-smelling stools can be caused by insufficient amounts of pancreatic enzymes in the intestines. Constipation is also a common problem. If the digestive system works too slowly, it can cause stools to become dry, hard and painful to pass.
    • Diabetes Diagnosis Research suggests that a sudden onset of type-2 diabetes in people age 50 or older could be an early symptom of pancreatic cancer.

    How is Pancreatic Cancer Diagnosed?

    If a specialist presumes pancreatic cancer, the patient is made to undergo at least one of the following tests:

    • Imaging tests These tests enable a specialist to see your internal organs, including the pancreas. Procedures used to examine a pancreatic tumour incorporate ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic reverberation imaging (MRI) and, positron emission tomography (PET).
    • Laparoscopy Utilising a laparoscope to create ultrasound photos of the pancreas. This device is a thin, adaptable tube (endoscope) which is inserted in the throat and into your stomach to get the pictures.
    • Biopsy A biopsy is a technique to remove a small sample of tissue for examination under a magnifier. The sample tissue is acquired using a needle through the skin and into the pancreas (fine-needle aspiration).
    • Blood test The specialist may test the patient's blood for particular proteins (tumour markers) in the pancreatic disease cells. One tumour marker test used in pancreatic cancer is called CA19-9.

    What Treatment Options are Available for Pancreatic Cancer?

    • Surgery For diagnosed patients, surgical intervention is the best choice to cure pancreatic cancer. Potentially curative surgery is chosen when the results of diagnostic tests suggest that it’s possible to remove all the cancerous cells. Palliative surgery may be done if imaging tests conclude that the cancer is too widespread to be removed. This surgery is done to relieve symptoms or to prevent specific complications like a blocked bile duct or intestine.
    • Chemotherapy Chemotherapy drugs head out through the circulatory system to kill tumour cells all through the body. Chemotherapy uses medications to control cancerous cells by preventing them from developing and separating. These medications travel through the circulation system and damage the cancerous cells in the pancreas.
    • Radiation Therapy Radiation treatment uses radio waves or electromagnetic waves. It can damage growth cells to prevent them from developing and separating. A huge machine coordinates the radiation through the midriff into the cancerous tissue.
    • Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that try to find the cure for pancreatic cancer. These studies are the main route for scientists to check whether new medicines assist individuals with a pancreatic tumour. Pancreatic cancer patients who take an interest in clinical research experience better results.
    • Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a treatment that enables your immune system to kill cancerous cells. A robust immune system enables the body to battle germs and affliction. However, it is often unable to detect the dangerous nature of cancer cells. There is an FDA-approved immunotherapy medicine for pancreatic cancer patients with certain hereditary changes. Most immunotherapy drugs for pancreatic malignancy are in clinical preliminaries
    • Targeted Therapy Targeted therapy uses medications to damage or kill the diseased cells without damaging nearby cells. This therapy uses concentrated drugs or different substances to attack cancerous pancreatic cells. Targeted treatments cause less damage to healthy cells than chemotherapy or radiation treatment do. Monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the two fundamental kinds of targeted therapies being used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    Prognosis

    While pancreatic cancer survival rates have been improving from decade to decade with the help of clinical trials, the disease is still considered incurable. One year survival rate is 20% and five years survival rate is 7%.

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Hospitals

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Indraprastha Apollo

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Fortis Hospital

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Metro Hospital

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BLK Hospital

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Action Cancer Hospital

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Denvax Clinics

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Artemis Hospital

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Fortis Malar Hospital

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Manipal Hospitals

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Apollo Hospital

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Seven Hills Hospital

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Doctors

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Dr. Nidhi RawalPaediatric Cardiology

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Dr. Manjinder SandhuPaediatric Cardiology

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Dr. Anish GuptaHead & Neck Surgeon

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Dr. Ashutosh ShuklaSr. Consultant

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Dr. I P S OberoiOrthopaedics

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Dr. Paritosh S GuptaGeneral & MI Surgery

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Dr. Rajesh K. VermaOrthopaedics

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Dr. Aditya GuptaAdditional Director – Neurosurgery

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Dr. Subodh Chandra PandeDirector - Radiation Oncology and Co-Director - Cyberknife Centre

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Dr. Himanshu GargHead

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Dr. Geeta Baruah Nath Sr. Consultant

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Dr. S. V. KotwalMS General Surgery

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Dr. Sameer KaushalSr. Consultant

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Dr. Nitin Goel GoelConsultant

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Dr. Rajiv ChhabraSr. Consultant

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Dr. T K ThusooSenior Surgeon

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Dr. Shashidhar TBHead and Neck surgeon

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Dr. Vikram Barua KaushikAssociate Urologist

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Dr. Sumit SinghDirector

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Dr. Viresh MahajanDirector - Pediatric Cardiology

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Dr. Sumeet AgarwalHead

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Dr. Noaline SinhaSr. Consultant

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Dr. Subhash Jangid Senior Consultant

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Dr. Veena Bhat Obstetrics & Gynaecology

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Dr. Rohit MehtaHead of Department, Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation

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Dr. Inder Mohan ChughAssociate Director & HOD - Interventional Pulmonology & Sleep Medicine

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Dr. Manoj KhanalSenior Consultant Neurology

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Dr. Vineeta GoelAssociate Director, Radiation Oncology

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Dr. Naresh Kumar GoyalAssociate Director & HOD - Cardiology(Clinical & Research)

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Dr. Naveen BhamriHead of Department & Associate Director Interventional Cardiology

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Dr. Harsh WardhanSenior Consultant - Paediatric Surgery

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Dr. Yogesh ChhabraConsultant - Nephrology & Renal Transplantation

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Dr. Raju EaswaranSenior Consultant - Orthopaedics & Sports Injury

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Dr. Archit PanditConsultant - Surgical Oncology

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Dr. Rakesh K. DuaDirector & Head - Neurosurgery(Spine & Brain)

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Dr. Nikhil AgnihotriSenior Consultant

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Dr. Anil Kumar VarshneyDirector & HOD - Urology

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Dr.(Col.) Ranga Rao RangarajuDirector - Medical Oncology

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Dr. Rudra Prasad AcharyaMS(General surgery), Fellow(Surgical Oncology ft Colorectal Surgery), Sr. Consultant ft Head

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Dr. Gaurav DixitConsultant - Medical Oncology, Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplant

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